The key points contained within this article are that:
- Strong regulatory frameworks and related monitoring protocols are needed to reduce the risks and enhance benefits of finance to reduce emissions from deforestation within the landscape;
- Involving local community institutions and civil society organisations in developing and contributing to forest monitoring systems will be crucial to improve forest governance and the transparency of new forest financing mechanisms, such as green bonds;
- Participatory monitoring can independently verify progress and assess the impact and effectiveness of different forest policy and finance interventions across the landscape;
- Bottom-up information flows can help improve investor confidence and inform ethical and environmental investment decisions;
- As forest finance flows are scaled-up, cross-sectoral and multi-scale collaboration will be needed to align indicators and standards and develop coherent landscape-level monitoring frameworks.